Thursday, January 16, 2020

Crowd Management in Sport Facilities Essay

When conditions or circumstances warrant substantial levels of wariness, crowd management as a consequence becomes prudent. The key in getting a safe and comfortable environment for large packs of people is in planning for their management. There is considerable prominence on crowd management planning and implementation since it is important to provide a safe environment for everyone. Crowd management must take into account all the rudiments of an event especially the type of event, for example a circus, sporting, concert, or carnival event. It must also view characteristics of the facility, dimension and demeanor of the crowd, methods of entry, communications, crowd control, plus queuing (Herb, 1998). As in all management, it must also include planning, arranging, staffing, directing in addition to evaluating. Crowd management is best defined as every element of the game or event from the design of the stadium to the game itself as well as the protection of the customers from unforeseeable risk of danger from other persons or from the actual facility itself. The main criteria for gouging if crowd control procedures are sufficient and suitable depend on the kind of event, threats of aggression, existence and sufficiency of the emergency arrangement, expectation of crowd size in addition to seating arrangement, known rivalries among teams along with schools, and the use of security personnel (Herb, 1997). Crowd management is therefore paramount in sports facilities and venues because of the large masses that throng such places. Some facilities involve more sport management than others, thus would require more crowd management during functions. Venues should be primarily assessed for safety and its ability to hold large crowds. From the evaluation, the results should be processed, conclusions drawn, proposals made and a report written to all parties involved. The team that carries out such a task should be well trained in this area and used to dealing with all sorts of events, particularly sports. Reference Herb, A. (1998) Risk Management in Sport: Issues and Strategies. London, Carolina Academic Press Miller, L. (1997) Sport Business Management. New York, Jones & Barlett Publishers.

Tuesday, January 7, 2020

Compare and Contrast American Psycho by Bret Easton Ellis...

Compare and Contrast American Psycho by Bret Easton Ellis and The Remains of the Day by Kazuo Ishiguro focussing on the topic of the unreliable narrator The unreliable narrator is a technique used by authors where a scenario is created in which the reader cannot trust the narration of the book usually done in the first person. In American psycho, Ellis explores the sinister nature of Wall Street yuppie culture by examining the sanity of the narrating protagonist Patrick Bateman using the unreliable narrator. Ishiguro also uses this, exploring ideas of regret and also self-justification in the character of Mr Stevens in The Remains of the Day. Unlike Ellis who examines Bateman during his early working years, in his mid-twenties and†¦show more content†¦Jennifer Phillips describes this relationship between Bateman’s personas as his ‘mask of sanity’ he wears to cover his ‘growing dementia’. In comparison the technique of the unreliable narrator is used in The Remains of the Day. Kazuo Ishiguro is no stranger to use of the technique and indeed in his novel: An Artist of the Floating World, the protagonist, Ono, a painter, says: ‘I cannot recall any colleague who could paint a self-portrait with absolute honesty’. Zuzana Fonikova indicates that this inability to paint a picture of oneself honestly comes from a personal desire to ‘hide the disgraceful facts and emphasise the positive traits’, which is where the source of Stevens’ unreliability in recalling events stems, what he did not see as ‘disgraceful’ by his own standards then, he consciously or subconsciously supresses: ‘It is possible this is a case of hindsight colouring my memory’. In a different way to American psycho, in which the reader is an observing witness to Patrick Bateman’s life and narrative, The Remains of the Day presents a series of fl ashbacks narrated by an elderly protagonist looking back on his life, linking both novels is the idea of preservation of image, Bateman’s; an image desperately trying to keep up culturally and socially while Stevens; an image of dignity. ‘Dignity’ is frequently referenced throughout the novel, certainly in both in Stevens’ present and past. The idea of

Monday, December 30, 2019

Compound Interest and Rate Essay - 1836 Words

Solution to Problem Set 1 1. You are considering various retirement plans. Your goal is to have a lump sum of $3,000,000 available (‘in the bank’) when you retire at age 67. The various plans, with their payment schedules, are listed below. In each case, calculate the payment(s) that must be made into the plan to ensure that you have the $3,000,000 available. For each plan, you may assume that your opportunity cost of funds is 6% per year; for each plan, you may assume that the phrase â€Å"at age XX† means the same thing as â€Å"on your XX’th birthday†. Plan 1: Single lump sum at age 25 Plan 2: Single lump sum at age 50 Plan 3: Equal annual payments, commencing at age 31 and ending at age 67 Plan 4: Equal annual†¦show more content†¦Note that the monthly inflation rate is 2.4%/12, or 0.2% per month. We need to compound the first tuition cash flow, which occurs in 16 years, by 16 X 12 = 192 months, the second tuition cash flow by 17 X 12 = 204 months, etc. First tuition cash flow = 38,500 * (1.002)192 = 56,501.93 Second tuition cash flow = 38,500 * (1.002)204 = 57,872.99 Third tuition cash flow = 38,500 * (1.002)216 = 59,277.32 Fourth tuition cash flow = 38,500 * (1.002)228 = 60,715.73 If we wish to discount these annual cash flows, we need an effective annual rate. Currently, the interest rate is given to us as 6.0% per year, compounded monthly. This implies an effective monthly rate of 0.50%, or an effective annual rate of: (1.0050)12 – 1 = 6.1678% The value at t=16 of these cash flows, with r=6.1678%: V =56,501.93 + 57,872.99/(1.061678) + 59,277.32/(1.061678)2+ 60,715.73/(1.061678)3 V = $214,339.59 f) Calculate the value, at t=16, of four years’ worth of college tuition if tuition grows at the recent education inflation rate of 6.4% per year, compounded monthly. Changing the inflation rate in the problem above to 6.4% per year, compounded monthly (or 0.533% per month), we have tuition cash flows of t Cash flow 16 106,904.64 17 113,950.85 18 121,461.47 19 129,467.13 And the value at t=16, with our opportunity cost ofShow MoreRelatedMathematics of Finance Hw Essay735 Words   |  3 Pagesannual simple interest rate of 6%, for 10 months b) To invest 5,000â‚ ¬ in a bank account that offers an annual compound interest rate of 6%, for 10 months The bank pays interests once per month a) b) So, option b) is the best. 2- Prove which of the following options is the most interesting one: a) To invest 5,000â‚ ¬ in a bank account that offers an annual simple interest rate of 6%, for 1 year b) To invest 5,000â‚ ¬ in a bank account that offers an annual compound interest rate of 6%, for 1Read MoreCompound Interest Formul The Magic Formula For Becoming Rich And Building Wealth980 Words   |  4 PagesCompound Interest Formula - The Magic Formula for Becoming Rich and Building Wealth By Keelan Cunningham | Submitted On February 14, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Expert Author Keelan CunninghamRead Morefinance lab week 3787 Words   |  4 PagesFIN 370 Lab Study Guide - All Weeks - Additional Formula (Compound interest) to what amount will the following investments accumulate? a. $5,000 invested for 10 years at 10 percent compounded annually 5000 x (1.10)^10 = 5000 x2.5937 =12968.5 b. $8,000 invested for 7 years at 8 percent compounded annually 8000 x (1.08)^7 = 8000 x 1.7138 = 13710.59 c. $775 invested for 12 years at 12 percent compounded annually 775 x (1.12)^12 = 775 x3.8959 =3019.38 d. $21,000 invested for 5 years at 5 percentRead MoreAnnuity1659 Words   |  7 Pagescomputed the future value of an investment when a fixed amount of money is deposited in an account that pays interest compounded periodically. 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Generally, interest in a savings accountRead MoreCapital Budgeting Npv701 Words   |  3 Pagesfinite period of time at a given interest rate. Put another way, future value is the cash value of an investment at a particular time in the future. Start by considering the simplest case, a single-period investment. Investing For a Single Period: Suppose you invest $100 in a savings account that pays 10 percent interest per year. How much will you have in one year? You will have $110. This $110 is equal to your original principal of $100 plus $10 in interest. We say that $110 is the future value

Sunday, December 22, 2019

The Ethics Of Police Officers - 967 Words

Police officers not only have to follow a set of rules and legislation, but they also must behave in a decent manner while on duty as well as off duty. Unfortunately, nobody is perfect, and police officers also make wrong decisions that could jeopardize the integrity of their police department. Often people know something they do is wrong. However, they still do it because they feel no harm will come to them or it they think nobody will ever find out. For instance, cheating on a test is wrong, but people do it because they think they can t get away without the professor finding out. There was a case where pictures were posted online about an bad officer conduct. On June 26th, 2013 a Grapeland, Texas officer was fired because of his unethical behavior. Apparently, the police officer was at a party. The police officer allowed a female at the party to wear his gun belt with his loaded gun, ammunition and Taser still on the belt. 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Saturday, December 14, 2019

Exporting Toys from Belgium to the People’s Republic of China Free Essays

string(110) " The new rich surpass actual needs and as a result become more qualified for merchandising and advertisement\." [pic] ________________ KATHOLIEKE UNIVERSITEIT LEUVEN Faculty of business and economics International Marketing Toys: Exporting toys from Belgium to the People’s Republic of China [pic] Julie Mertens 1 Master TEW Prof. Pierre FrancoisAcademic year 2008-2009 1. Table of contents2 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Exporting Toys from Belgium to the People’s Republic of China or any similar topic only for you Order Now Introduction3 3. Consumption culture in the People’s Republic of China 4 1. China and its economic growth 1. Export5 2. Open economy 3. Middle class people’s consumption culture 2. Culture 1. One child policy 2. Filiarchy6 3. Six pocket syndrome 4. Parental education 5. Children’s personal expenditures . Mian zi7 7. Mien-tsu Lien 8. Guanxi 9. Fake products 10. Cheaper before better8 11. Religion 12. Astrology superstition 13. Language 14. Emotions9 15. Business culture 16. Research studies 17. Hofstede10 4. Proposed Marketing adaptations 11 1. Segmentation 2. Targeting 3. Positioning 4. Price adaptations 12 5. Product adaptations 1. Product specifications 2. Assortment change13 3. Brand name 4. Image 5. Packaging 6. Service level 6. Distribution Strategy14 7. Communication15 1. Media and the message 2. Advertisement and promotion 5. General conclusion16 6. References17 7. Apendices18 . Introduction Nowadays, in this time of economic depression, some people bel ieve the era of globalization is over. Others consider globalization as a necessity in these times of integration into one worldculture. In this paper, I will try to indicate if and to which extent the marketing-mix should be adapted when exporting Belgian toys to the People’s Republic of China. First, a little company introduction is given. Secondly, some relevant facts and numbers about the People’s Republic of China are discussed. Then, some cultural differences between Belgium and PRC are considered. Finally, the proposed marketing adaptations will be under consideration. Lilliputiens: a company introduction Lilliputiens is a Belgian company that specialises in the production of fabric-based toys. What sets them apart is the extremely high product quality. Their aim is to ensure that all of their toys combine their three core values: provide quality toys at reasonable prices, which are fun to play with, great to look at and have an educational value. [pic][pic] In order to properly stimulate their little customers, namely boys and girls in the zero to five age range, they have created gentle toys made of soft fabric. Their senses are stimulated thanks to the use of a diverse range of textures, sounds, shapes and colours. The toys are designed with the knowledge that toys enable children to imagine, touch, create and think. Those provide a key role in children’s development. Another special feature of the toys is that they evolve in a way that accompanies the baby throughout his or her passage into early infancy. As the child grows, the new play elements are revealed, making new activities and games possible. As a consequence, these toys no longer need to be put back in the box after just three months! Not only dolls but also a play mat, a food pyramid, a table set and a ruler are amongst the Lilliputiens’ product line. [pic] [pic] [pic] 3. Consumption culture in the People’s Republic of China China and its economic growth China is the greatest and most challenging new frontier that international marketers are facing today. China is the most populated country in the world. With one fifth of the world population and the largest population of children in the world, it is an enormous potential market. China’s economic growth has risen 11% during 2007 and keeps developing. There is new money to spend by the 200 million acquisitive people in the middle class. But numbers are not everything; you have to win people’s hearths to be and stay in business. Let that be the issue of this paper. [pic] Figure 1: China’s estimated per capita income per province in 2003 As shown in figure 2 and 3, China’s economic growth passes unequally. Eastern regions have known a faster growth that has given rise to an enormous gap between Eastern and Western China. Eastern China has become more occidental with different needs as a result. In this paper, only China’s Eastern, urban regions will be discussed since China’s ten largest cities, which contain only four percent of China’s population, account for approximately 22 percent of its earning power and 19 percent of its spending power. The urban children’s market contains around 100 million children. Figure 2Figure 3 Export The Chinese market is a paradise for both internal and foreign investors. In 2006, Belgium has exported for almost 3 billion euro to China. This makes China Belgium’s thirteenth trading partner with 1. 1% of our GDP. However compared to India, Belgium’s eighth business partner, the export ratio is lower. To further improve export, good connections will be needed. Open economy According to Eugene Wang, China is relatively open to foreign investments. China has the largest supply of foreign direct investments. Compared to India, China’s tariff protection is more modest and keeps declining. This has resulted in a rapid increase in the volume of imports. In 2003, China’s imports rated 30% of its gross domestic product, which is twice the import ratio of the U. S. Foreign firms with facilities within China account for 25% of all manufactured goods. These goods can be exported or could serve China’s internal market. Middle class people’s consumption culture The present middle class or â€Å"new rich† have made money and acquired standing in only one generation. China has an ambiguous relationship towards foreign culture; Chinese both worship and avert it. Imported goods represent purchasing power, status and good taste. Chinese start to adore Western culture and lifestyle. Although the Western consumption culture conflicts with their traditional consumption culture of thrift and spending in proportion to income, the middle class have become a part of the consumerism culture, especially in the fashion consumption. Albeit their norms and values tend to incline towards the Western culture, imitation is gradually transferring into their own consumption culture. â€Å"I consume so I exist† is the new attitude. The new rich surpass actual needs and as a result become more qualified for merchandising and advertisement. You read "Exporting Toys from Belgium to the People’s Republic of China" in category "Papers" They spend a lot of money on consumer goods, like toys. A potential market is definitely there! Culture Cultures are learned by parenting as well as social interactions and therefore they can change. Despite the impact of current globalization, cultural differences will stay. One-child policy The biggest cultural difference between the rest of the world and China is the â€Å"one-child policy†. Since 1979, due to China’s history and more specifically the population control, law states a maximum of one child per household. Observational data shows that there are 18% more boys than girls. Compared to the world average, this percentage lays 15% higher! In China, men stand for responsibility for the family and are raised to become the head of the household. Therefore, people prefer to have a baby boy rather than a baby girl. However, in the urban regions this is gradually changing. More and more parents cherish the same ambitions for their girl. In fact, in the big cities girls are preferred because parents will not have to worry about being able to provide enough hope chest. [pic] Figure 4: Advertisement to promote the one child policy: carry out family planning – implement the basis national policy Filiarchy Whether a child is born as a boy or a girl, it is born with much more responsibility on his shoulders than in the rest of the world. When it comes to education, health or money, parents will do whatever it takes to contribute to the success of live of their children. For that reason, the one child determines the household. According to Mc Neal and Yeh, Chinese children influence the consumption pattern in such a significant way, namely by 68%, that outsiders look upon him or her as a â€Å"spoiled brat† or â€Å"little emperor†. In the case of toys, the influence on the parents’ purchases mounts up to 93% for children in the zero to five age range. On an annual basis, Chinese children exert a direct influence on play item purchases of three billion dollar per year. It can be said that China has shifted from a patriarchy to a filiarchy; kids have become the centre of the universe! Six pocket syndrome Chinese parents spend much more time, money and effort on their only child’s development. Chinese children are not only raised by their parents but by the whole family. This second source of money, the grandparents, lives in the same household due to other standards of living. This results in six adults indulging one child. This effect is better known as the â€Å"4-2-1 indulgence† or the â€Å"six pocket syndrome†. Parental education In China, society is much more collective than in Belgium. This is reflected in the Chinese family and kinship system. It is not unusual that grandparents live under the same roof. Not surprisingly, family has a tremendous impact on a child education. From birth, Chinese children are learned to respect and obey their elders. Unlike in Belgium, Chinese adults keep seeking for parental approval. Children’s personal expenditures In the first place, children learn about new products from other children, followed by advertisement and store visits. Research has shown that there is a difference in requests between boys and girls. Beyond expectations, girls ask significantly more for toys than boys! But who pays for their expenditures? For children under the age of four, it are the parents and other relatives who buy and pay for the toys. Unexpected but true, according to Chan children start to spend their own money on their own wants and needs from the age of four, mostly toys and food! Mian zi Chinese children do not spend all of their money. A four year old saves around 75% of his pocket money. Their regular income can be spent but special incomes given on birthdays or Chinese New Year are expected to be saved. Learn how to manage money is a second but just as important reason why Chinese parents give their children money. China derives from a socialist economy and has a culture that emphasizes on saving money because they believe this contributes to the development of one’s prestige, which is called â€Å"mian zi†. Mien-tsu Lien Mien-tsu stands for a reputation through drive, ostentation and success –often expressed by personal wealth-. The more mien-tsu a person has, the higher his social status is and the more influence a person has on others and important decisions. A person’s mien-tsu is dynamic; it can change over time by someone’s success or failure. Lien represents the confidence of society in a person’s sincerity and can only be lost by misconduct. Together, they determine the importance of a person in his interpersonal relations among Chinese. In China, this is extremely important when doing business, because contracts are defined by trust and connections. Guanxi If a Chinese wants to be successful in business, he needs more than just brains. Guanxi is a personal network of influence and social relationships that is used to obtain a service or favor for ‘reasonable purposes’. Guanxi can be compared to social capital and so it is not an act of bribery. The line between guanxi and corruption is rather thin. Chinese have a different view on corruption and crime. Corruption is very big issue in China, even within the Chinese government, which censors certain information. As a result, statistics should always be used with cautiousness. Fake products In China, counterfeiting is a national sport. 40% of all counterfeit toys have China as its country of origin. Although China has signed international agreements on patents and production rights, there are two reasons why they do not hold on to them. First, it is a result of historical factors. Most Chinese do not consider copying someone else’s work as a crime. Secondly, Chinese believe the Western companies are already rich enough, so counterfeiting does not harm the genuine producers. This way, China stays the epicentre of the fake industry. [pic] [pic] Cheaper before better The question: â€Å"Are Chinese genuine and counterfeit products are worse than Western products† has no unilateral answer. On the one hand, China stands for â€Å"cheaper -and therefore often dangerous- instead of better†. Think of the Mattel incident, where Chinese toys had to be taken back because the paint had too much lead in it. The â€Å"Made in China† is rather a warning than a quality label. On the other hand, a difference between â€Å"made in China† and â€Å"Made by China† has to be made. European companies who produce in China generally correspond to the Western criteria, so â€Å"Made in China† does not always indicate risks. According to Holslag, a researcher at the Brussels Institute for Contemporary China Studies, China will catch up to the Western norms concerning quality within the foreseeable future. Also a shift from knickknacks to high-tech products is taking place. Religion China is a country full of traditions. One of them is Confucianism, which was the state doctrine until 1912. Confucianism is not really a religion but more a philosophy or guideline for everyday life and determines what to eat, how to behave, what to wear, ect. According to Confucius, laws are not a good basis of the State. He believes imbueing people with rituals is more effective to reach State stability. Confucius’ society is very hierarchic; everyone knows his position and should act like it. Though society is not static. His idea was that talented people should be able to move up in society, which has had a great impact on the Chinese vision of life. Later, Buddhism, Christian and mainly Taoism influences mingled with Confucianism into neo-Confucianism. So, it is not strange to find a Chinese who is a Confucian, Buddhist as well as a Taoist. [pic] Nature Astrology superstition Chinese culture stands in function of nature. Chinese consider themselves part of nature and try to live in harmony with it. In Chinese astrology, the zodiac of twelve animal signs represents twelve different types of personality. The zodiac traditionally begins with the sign of the rat, followed by the ox, the tiger, the rabbit, ect. This year, Chinese New Year falls on 26th of January and stands in the sign of the ox. Superstition plays an important role in Chinese culture. Although fortune-telling is forbidden, people go to fortune-tellers to ask whether their child will be a boy or a girl. Language Mandarin is the most spoken language in China. If you speak Mandarin, you have 915 million native speaking conversation partners! Next to the official language, there are numerous dialects. Besides the different spoken languages, there are also two written languages. [pic] Emotions You will not often see a Chinese crying! Chinese often get blame for not saying what they really think or feel. Westerners find that Chinese behave in a cold manner. A possible explanation is the fact that people were hanged in the past for taking a different view on certain matters. Another explanation is that defending one’s opinion is a Western way of dealing with a situation when there are opposing thoughts. Chinese are learnt at school to accept what is told. Business culture A difference between Belgian and Chinese culture is that Chinese do not work by a model as much as Belgians do. In Belgium, people set up a plan and execute it. In China, people are much more flexible. They anticipate and react on the situation. A possible explanation can be found in their education. Chinese children come in contact with much more opinions during their family education. Laws, contracts and rules are less significant. Chinese have a different calendar, namely the Moon calendar. Fortunately, for business they also use the Gregorian calendar. Research studies Culture is defined by what we buy and why we buy it. National culture determines consumer behaviour, not income. (De Mooij) At first sight, culture does not seem relevant when it comes to toys. Toys are used for children’s entertainment. However, there certainly is a difference in usage between Belgium and China. As mentioned before, Chinese parents find it extremely important that their child stands out from the mass. Therefore, Chinese parents buy toys to stimulate their children to learn as soon as possible rather than for entertainment. So, marketing, branding and advertising strategies should be adapted when exporting toys to China. Hofstede But how different are the Belgian and Chinese culture? According to Hofstede, one can define cultural difference on the basis of five dimensions on a 0 to 100-range scale. The degree of power distance, individualism, masculinity, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation determines a national culture. The higher the score, the more dimension determines the culture. Belgium belongs to the more developed Latin countries cluster and China falls under the less developed Asian countries. [pic] Figure 5: Cultural difference between China and Belgium Power distance More than Belgian culture, the Chinese culture knows a larger power distance. In China, the acceptance of hierarchy and authority is higher. Since all people are treated fairly, they do not resist and respect higher ranked and elder people because these stand for wisdom. As mentioned before, Chinese rely much more on human relationships (guanxi) than on contracts. Individualism Esomar research shows that China is a collectivist culture, in which loyalty and social network (Mien-stu, Lien Guanxi) are important. In China, the group where you belong to defines your identity. In Belgium, people and society are more individualistic, which has enabled capitalism. Masculinity Concerning the masculinity/femininity, there is not much distinction between Belgium and China. Both countries have some features of both characteristics. Uncertainty avoidance In Belgium, people believe they have faith in their own hands. In China, people depend much more on fate and believe their destiny is determined for them. In this fatalistic country, failure is unevitable. Belgians are more threatened by risk and uncertainty than the Chinese. As a result, the Chinese are much more open to change. This confirms the Confucianism influence on China. Long-term orientation Like other Southeast Asian countries, China is long term oriented. This has the similar effect as the Confucian values, which are acceptance of change, perseverance, thrift and pursuit of peace of mind. Belgium, on the other hand, strives for immediate results like other Western countries. According to Hofstede, these cultural differences will remain over time, how much globilization even takes place. Now that the Chinese culture has no mysteries anymore, let’s take a look at which adaptations are to be made. 4. Proposed Marketing adaptations Cross-cultural awareness – the understanding that what is normal in one culture can be offending in another one – starts to gain credit. People start to recognize that to be successful in foreign business, the company should adapt the marketing mix to the country’s values and culture. However, adaptation is very costly and time-consuming. Although China is becoming more Occidental, the marketing mix should be adapted only until the profits do not make up for the costs anymore. Segmentation There is no such thing as an average consumer! Therefore, there is no use -or value- in making an average product. First, the company has to distinguish the different market segments based on similar product needs for consumers. For the Chinese toy market, a distinction between the urban and rural households can be made. The question â€Å"whether a market segment is specific enough to make it a segment on its own† depends on four P’s. The first P stands for product. Children in urban China play with different and more qualitative toys than children in rural China. The second P stands for price. Since urban China is much wealthier, they are less price sensitive than rural China. Also the service level, the third P, differs. The more cultivated East demands a higher servicelevel. The final P, promotion, varies from TV advertisement and word of mouth in urban China to only word of mouth in rural China. | |Size |Product |Price |Service |Promotion | |Urban |36 % |High quality |High |High |TV + word of mouth | |Rural |64 % |Different toys |Low |Low |Word of mouth | Table 1: Segmentation: the four P’s Targeting In a next phase, the company has to make a strategic choice. This hard-to-reverse decision, namely the decision which specific market segment will be targeted, depends on the value that can be offered to customers. Although the final consumers are children between zero and five years old, most of the time it will be the parents who will buy the toys. Since the most profitable segment is China’s urban household segment, this market segment will be targeted. For the reason that this target group lives highly concentrated in the cities, they are easy to reach customers. Positioning Brand positioning is the process by which marketers try to create an image or identity in the minds of their target market for a certain product. The question is whether a brand should be global or not. In this case, a global image of the brand is not important. It would be better to distinguish the positioning since in China the focus would be on learning during playing compared to recreation and entertainment in Belgium. Although it is costly, the company will benefit from this investment because of the positive effect on buying behaviour. Two company images will not confuse customers since there is a language and character barrier between both countries. Price adaptations A price can be determined on the basis of costs, by looking at competitors’ prices or in proportion to the value created towards the end-consumer. I would suggest the company to go for the third option. Although the company’s first goal should be market penetration – resulting in low prices –, still a skimming pricing strategy seems best. The dolls are of a superior quality and luxury products demand a high price. I believe 50 euro or 465 Chinese Yuan would be an appropriate price for a 25 by 15 centimetre doll. This high price can be justified because the toy cannot only be used for entertainment but also for educational purposes. Since the income of the middle class is only rising, according to my market research (see apendix) at this price there will be enough potential buyers. Another reason that justifies a high price is the high level of pre and after sales service Chinese demand, which will be discussed further. Product adaptations †¢ Product specifications Nowadays, toy manufacturers do not adapt the features of the dolls! But research has shown that it hurts the childern’s self-esteem. Therefore, the company should customize the skin colour, hair, eyes, height, ect. as shown in figure 6. [pic] Figure 6: A Chinese Lilliputien doll with yellow skin, dark hair and dark slit-eyed eyes. One of Lilliputiens’ toys is the food pyramid by which children can learn how to put together well-balanced meals. Since people in China eat other vegetables, other meat and noodles and rice instead of potatoes, this pyramid should be adapted. Another Lilliputien toy, the table set also should be modified since Chinese eat with chopsticks instead of fork and knife. [pic] [pic] Figure 7: Food pyramidFigure 8: Table set †¢ Assortment change Children like choice; therefore the product line should be expanded. The current themes like the circus, the Indians, the Pirates, the nativity of Jesus Christ could be supplemented with the twelve zodiac animals of the Chinese astrology. A doll of the child’s animal sign can be given as a gift at the child’s birth. A less perfect acquisition for the assortment would be a Buddhist doll, Chinese would find it inappropriate and rude. †¢ Brand name Due to a different language and moreover a different alphabet, it is crucial to change the company name and product names. â€Å"Lilliputiens† would be unpronounceable. My suggestion would be to render the company’s name by transliteration, so that is sounds the closest to its original name. Pu-Tien means â€Å"all over the world†, which fits with the company philosophy, to give all children over the world the chance to play. †¢ Image The new rich people love to show off their wealth. A good idea would be to create a good recognizable logo to put on each doll so that others can recognize the brand and they can brag about expensive purchase. The advertisement campaigns should be identifiable by showing rich and fortunate people. †¢ Packaging Since the packaging has to sell the product, it is essential to make it as colourful and vibrant as possible. The company certainly has to use the colour red on the packaging, since in China, red has a positive connotation and stands for success, honour, fertility, happiness and love. Qualitative information, about the fact that this toy is educational as well as entertaining, must be provided to the Chinese parents. A good idea could be to use a combination of Chinese and English language in the toys manual. Due to internalization, the Chinese middle and upper class have become familiar with English. Toys are often given as a gift. The packaging has to look nice, because gifts are used to build up and strengthen relationships. The dolls are very soft and have different textures, therefore the company could use an open packaging so potential customers can feel and see the product before purchasing. Service level When a child has a need, it wants the need to be gratified as soon as possible. Since fast delivery is thus very important, there has to be enough inventory at any time. Because the Pu-Tien toys are more than just toys, this educational plaything stimulates senses and development of a child, there is need for pre sales service. Although China pays a lot of attention to pre-sales service as well as post sales service, they do not expect a guarantee on toys. Given that the dolls are made for children between zero and five years old, avoiding small parts and implementing warnings can prevent danger to children. Safety regulations are less strict in China. Nevertheless, the company should keep their high level of quality. Since the dolls are made in Belgium, the company should exploit their country of origin effect and explicitly mention â€Å"Made in Belgium†. Distribution strategy †¢ Business culture In China, paper means nothing. So if contracts do not work, what will? You need to band with local people and win their trust. This is where the Guanxi comes in. To obtain a certain service or favour, a personal network of influence and social relationships are a must. According to Li Qinfu, contact with the Chinese government also plays a very important role. When Westerners want to do business they contact their lawyers, when Chinese do business they contact government officials. †¢ Parallel import I would not set a lower price in the Chinese market than in the home market because due to relative low trade barriers, the risk and impact of grey export from China to Belgium would be too big. †¢ Mode of entry At first instance, due to low costs and a high control level, I would recommend the company to set up a website. But on further consideration, children want their needs to be gratified as soon as possible. In addition, if the toys are reachable (merchandising), they will also nag more, which helps children to get what they want if they have shut-up parents. Shipment costs for a prior delivery would be too large in proportion to the retail price. Another reason why a website would not be a good mode of entry is the level of pre and after sales service a Chinese consumer demands. The target segment, namely middle and upper class people with high requirements, searches for qualitative, pedagogical responsible and save toys. Therefore, these luxury toys should be sold in fancy local retail stores, not in ordinary supermarkets. The trade-off of using retail stores goes between the fact that the products are reachable, ready for delivery, a high service level and less control, more risk and higher investments. Since toy dealers are not motivated to deliver good sales support, a good way to check the service is ghost shopping. This market research technique of sending fake customers will tell if sales men give the right information and service to potential buyers and customers. Since feedback from distributors does not come easily because they are independent, a good idea is to improve relationships with local parties by means of guanxi. Communication A good strategy is nothing if it is not well executed. Advertisement is the most culturally sensitive element of the marketing mix. Therefore, it is wise to decide well how to say what you want to say. †¢ Media and the message When announcing the product launch to the potential customers by the media, the message strategy is of crucial importance. According to Hofstede, the communication style depends on the five dimensions of local culture. China is a developing, high context and collectivistic country. The best communication style is a less informative and more persuasive and emotional approach. When advertising on TV, a good idea would be to use the least words as possible. Optimally, only utilize non-verbal language. Not only because collectivistic cultures are more visually orientated (De Mooij), but also because children between zero and five cannot read and have a very small vocabulary. Toddlers have very well developed visual capabilities and are sensitive to emotions. For that reason, a visual advertisement would do better. In combination with a lot of colour, children’s attention will be monopolized. Although Hofstede suggests a less informative approach, I believe that the message towards the (grand)parents should be informative (information on age, warnings†¦) and focus on the educational value of the product. Pu-Tien toys provide a key role in a child’s development: its senses are stimulated thanks to the use of a diverse range of textures, sounds, shapes and colours. As slogan I would recommend: â€Å"Pu-tien tested, child educational approved! † As mentioned before, Chinese culture has shifted from a patriarchy to a filiarchy. As a result, advertisement will focus on children and their needs. †¢ Advertisement and promotion Not only the message, also the medium by which potential consumers are informed matters. In a first phase of promoting the product, children need to get to know the product. To gain product awareness, the company should adopt sampling. By offering certain pre-school kindergartens and day nursery centres some free samples, children will come in contact with the Pu-Tien product range. This is a win-win situation. Schools will be thankful to receive teaching aids nd our company will benefit from other children’s word of mouth, which is the best marketing tool. If our product line appeals to the children, children will nag to their parents to get the product. Sampling has as advantage that it is the most effective promotion strategy but unfortunately it is extremely expensive. Advertising on TV will be a second step of the company’s promotion strategy. Due to hypersegmenta tion, there are almost 3000 TV stations in China. With the given marketing budget, it would be too expensive to advertise on all of them. I would suggest advertising on one children’s channel as well as on one adult channel. Although the company’s target group is children between zero and five years old and their personal expenditures start from the age of four, mostly adults will buy the product for them. Since grandparents live in the same household, also raise their grandchildren and are happy to spend their money on their grandchildren’s formation, the commercial should consist of not only the child’s parents but of the whole family. Also some traditional symbols or Chinese icons should be put in because it will help to make the connection between the Western and their own consumption culture. As marketing manager, I think it is best not to invest money in global advertisement. I have computed the extent of standardization and found that toys are a cultural product. Therefore, the message and medium should change. It is not necessary to have one corporate brand image because the children in Belgium and China will not come in contact with each other, so it will not be confusing. Conclusion SWOT-analysis Strengths The major strength of the company’s product is the educational value that comes with the product. Chinese find education extremely important. Weaknesses A relative high price is chosen due to the risk and impact of parallel import. But a small segment with a high price can be more profitable than large volumes of low profit margin products. Opportunities Learning more about China, its culture, rules and laws and setting up a social network, with the government as well, will be extremely important. This will take some time, effort and money but it will enlarge the company’s chance to succeed tremendously. Threats I believe the biggest challenge will be the fierce competition from less qualitative and counterfeit dolls that are much cheaper. To conclude, as a marketing manager, I must say China stays a black box. When you have done all research that is possible; business in China still is risky. At least with the suggested adaptations the risk will be minimized and the success is multiplied. 6. References Interview Interview with my neighbour Yan Lu, a Chinese middle class woman living in Belgium since then years Books Kotler, P. et all (2005). Principles of Marketing. Prentice Hall Harlow. pp XVIII, 788. Chan, K. McNeal, J. (2004). Advertising to children in China. The Chinese University Press of Hong Kong. pp. I, 1-21, II, 23-42. Latham, K. Thompson, S. Klein, J. (2006). Consuming China. Routledge. Yau, O. H. M. (1994). Consumer behaviour in China. Routledge. pp III, 63-83. Usunier, J. -C. (2000). Marketing across cultures. Prentice Hall Harlow. pp V Articles Mooij, M. (2005). Mapping cultural values for global marketing and advertising. Dobbelaere, B. Reynebeau, M. (2008). Bijlage China: de rode boekjes: middelpunt van de wereld, 1,3 miljard sporters, een exploderende economie, paradijs voor investeerders, kleine vrouwen, een wereldmacht, de nieuwe rijken, een milieuramp, de diaspora, traditionele cultuur, culinair. De Standaard Reportage Marketing to children. Een, Koppen, 23/12/2008 Internet pages http://www. lilliputiens. be/EN/philosophy_nobel. htm 28/10/2008 http://www. allcountries. org/china_statistics/4_4_basic_statistics_on_national_population. html 25/11/2008 http://www. namingnewsletter. com/article. asp? id=42 25/11/2008 http://findarticles. com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_9-10_53/ai_n16084036 23/12/2008 http://benmuse. typepad. com/ben_muse/china/index. html 25/11/2008 http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Positioning_(marketing) 23/12/2008 http://simonworld. mu. nu/archives/105889. hp 24/12/2008 http://smallswordsmagazine. com/articles/life/chinesesarcasm. html 3/01/2009 http://www. wing-international. com/ 03/01/2009 7. Apendices [pic] Market research: Questionnaire: What is an appropriate price for the Pu-Tien doll? 1) Are you a male/female? 2) How old are you? 3) What is your highest level of education you have achieved? 4) What is your marital status? 5) How much do you earn each month? 6) Do you live in one of China’s big cities? 7) What is your housing type? 8) Do you have (grand)children? 9) How many (grand)children do you have? 0) Is it a boy or a girl? 11) Do you believe your (grand)child’s development is important? 12) Do you like to spend money on your (grand)childrens (birthday)presents? 13) How much would you normally spend on your (grand)child’s birthday? 14) Have you ever bought a Pu-Tien doll for your (grand)child? 15) Where you pleased with your purchase? 16) What was the occasion you bought the doll for? 17) How much did it cost you? 18) Did you found it a reasonable price? 19) What would have been the highest/lowest price at which you would buy a Pu-Tien doll? How to cite Exporting Toys from Belgium to the People’s Republic of China, Papers

Friday, December 6, 2019

Measurement of Social Media Marketing †

Question: Discuss about the Measurement of Social Media Marketing. Answer: Introduction The report talks about the impact of new social media channels. It explains that how these channels provide support to various customers in the market. It explains that how these channels are contributing in the society by engaging with the important issues and by targeting companies having vast decision making power. The report explains that how new media channels are changing the environment of the market. It talks about the aspects of social media marketing channel and it also explains the significance of social media channels. It explains that how the social media channels are becoming the part of the life. The influence of media channel in the environments such as Face book, YouTube, Google, and Twitter has enabled customer in giving active participation in the market development. These new media channels have started growing the business on a long term basis (Sashi, 2012). The strategy of company also gives plenty of opportunities for growth by adapting such strategies. After the various researches, it has been analyzed that the customer relationships is a process that entails the methodical and proactive management of relationships as they move from starting (initiation) to end (extinction), with implementation across the several customer-facing contact channels and quoting the time of new media, managing customer relation- ships effectively. In this way, social media channels are very unique and significant source for everyone. The behavior of customers towards each other has been changing over a decade. The social media has given a platform to the customers to know the products and services which are available in the market. The customers are able to gather information about anything with the help of these social media technologies and channels. The rise of this new media has given these customers a chance to test the quality of business supplement of the products (Haenlein, Skiera, Malthouse, Wege, Zhang, 2013). The social media channels provide support to promote the company products and services in the market. No firm can run business activities and operation effectively without social media channels. These channels provide help to make effective strategies and plans in order to meet long term goals and objectives (Gensler, Vlckner, Liu-Thompkins Wiertz, 2013). In new media the important role is played by brands. The consumers can share their interest in favorite brand through various sites and website. This is beneficial to resolve the various kinds of problems related with products and services. This helps the company by reducing the cost of service in the market and it increases the quality of products (Hennig-Thurau, Malthouse, Friege, Gensler, Lobschat, Rangaswamy Skiera, 2010). The evaluation of social media channels is giving a chance to the companies to meet the requirements, expectorations and needs of customers. The choice of adopting new media has helped the company in promoting and engaging to distribute their new offers. For example, consumers today are like the retailers (Kaplan Haenlein, 2010). They are producers and directors of networking sites such as eBay, YouTube etc. The customer relationship management is a tool which is used by the company as a strategy. It has become greatly popular in todays world. This relationship is consistent and will never come down. It is necessary for the companies to understand the significance of these strategies and customer relationships management. They help in achieving the common corporative objectives and goals (O'Brien, 2011). Further, social media marketing also plays a vital role in social media channels. The social media marketing is the procedure of gaining attention and traffic through various social, media sites. Through social media sites, people can share information and message across the world (Malthouse, Haenlein, Skiera,Wege, Zhan g, 2013).The social media channel provides help to increase the brand awareness and loyalty in the market. It provides rich and effective customer experience and knowledge. It is useful to analyze and evaluate the plans and strategies of the competitors in the market. It provides support to build reciprocal and good relationship with customers (Heinonen, Strandvik, Mickelsson, Edvardsson, Sundstrm Andersson, 2010). Involvement of social media Social media is an Internet-based application which allows customers and companies in communicating. The information can be created, shared or exchanged by using this platform. In todays developing world the social media has become a key factor in every company. These social media applications require sustainable investment in the market. The growth of the social media channels depend on the feedback of customers. These channels and sites have given privacy to every individual (Aula, 2010). They show their ability to allow the users to communicate and share easily or freely. The customer relationship management provides satisfaction to the customers as well as the company. The Social media maintains communication and collaboration between customers and companies (Laroche, Habibi Richard, 2013). To communicate with its users time to time, every company manage their account or website through social media channels. Through social media channels, they maintain their brand page, and they are able to tell their customers about the schemes by posting them on their website. It is an interaction between the company and its policy framework (Heinonen, Strandvik, Mickelsson, Edvardsson, Sundstrm Andersson, 2010). This helps to the companies to manage the effective relationship between brands and customers and it also tests and analyzes the potentiality of the market in the context of social media. But still, the company should understand about the social media marketing functio ns and activities. Through social media, customer gets the idea of the company and the kind of products supplied by the company (Whiting Williams, 2013). Social media also give a platform to the customers to share their feedback for liking or disliking about the product. For example, they can like, rate, review, or comment on the tested brand. Also, they can mention about the product or the brand to other people (Smith, 2010). By sharing the information about the brand it develops a sense of image about the purchase for the product. These channels provide important information to customers related to quality, quantity of products and services(Messing Westwood, 2014). The response of company will satisfy the customers and will allow them to purchase more in near future. The interaction with social media is potential and very important. But they are not free and require investments as well as additional charges for developing private software for the company (Dabbagh Kitsantas, 201 2). Now after the technique of social media, the company shows no interest in old used measures as they are already used over social media. They are focusing on the firms investment and marketing managers should look at the customers investment when interacting in such areas. The most important site used by the company to promote business for its operation is Facebook (Michaelidou, Siamagka Christodoulides, 2011). They maintain a proper brand page where they post pictures and relevant information to interact with consumers. It is a part of social marketing strategy that should be followed by the company. Mainly, the company focuses on the content and service towards society. But the main activity of the company is maintaining the brand page (Merchant, Elmer Lurie, 2011). It is the major platform of communication with the employees. The company interacts with the users regarding major issues and better functioning. Social media gives a chance to satisfy human requirements. They no longer think about the amount of money being invested. The company works with patience, time and knowledge. The social media allows companies to communicate with their customers, listen to their particular demands and needs and show them the offers (Kietzmann, Hermkens, McCarthy Silvestre, 2011). This will not only allow the company in creating a unique customer experience but will also help to meet the target and requirements of the firm in near future(Hutter, Hautz, Dennhardt Fller, 2013). The technique of social media is a type of strategy used by the various businesses in order to gain long-term growth and success in the market. The various media channels are becoming the great source for the company to reach the customers through various channels. Now a days, social media is becoming the part of life. No one can live without social media. These social media channels help to fulfill the demand of customers in the market. Disadvantages of social media It lacks the emotional connection between the customers and service providers. There is only the user interface where the employee interacts with the server where the people manage the organizational account. It also decreases the skills of face to face communication with the other employees of the organization. With the use of social media, it becomes difficult to interact by expressing the feelings. Using social media lacks to interact with the business by expressing gestures and emotions. This reduces the chance of knowing understanding and thoughts of people working in the organization. Employees just have to sit on the system and work which creates laziness. This is generally not expected of the employee working in the firm. They have to be active and passionate towards work. The social media is not appropriate for every business. Thus, it reduces the profits of the business. In this way, it affects the customers and service providers as well. Further, social media is immediate action thus; customers and service providers need to monitor and focus on the social media channels on daily basis. Therefore, it is a very time-consuming process for customers as well as service providers. Harassment and bullying risks are involved in social media. If the service providers do not manage social media activity and regular basis then no benefits can be taken by social media. Further, the major disadvantages with respect to customer relationship are that it lacks face to face interaction with the company. Sometimes, due to technical reasons services provided by the company to its customers generally are very poor. This reduces the trust of society towards the company. The lack of response from the company also results in future losses that company cannot afford. This makes business difficult to meet the requirements and expectations of the customers effectively and efficiently. Conclusion The report in general talks about the impact of social media on customer relationships. It shows how the company uses social media to growth and success. These channels affect the life cycle of business and trade. The report shows that involvement of social media can either change the situation of the company or remain stable (Xiang Gretzel, 2010). But it is good to make changes by adapting the advancements in technology. Now it is concluded that people should promote the social media channels to gain the various benefits in near future. References Aula, P. (2010). Social media, reputation risk and ambient publicity management.Strategy Leadership,38(6), 43-49. Dabbagh, N., Kitsantas, A. (2012). Personal Learning Environments, social media, and self-regulated learning: A natural formula for connecting formal and informal learning.The Internet and higher education,15(1), 3-8. Gensler, S., Vlckner, F., Liu-Thompkins, Y., Wiertz, C. (2013). Managing brands in the social media environment.Journal of Interactive Marketing,27(4), 242-256. Heinonen, K., Strandvik, T., Mickelsson, K. J., Edvardsson, B., Sundstrm, E., Andersson, P. (2010). A customer-dominant logic of service.Journal of Service Management,21(4), 531-548. Hennig-Thurau, T., Malthouse, E. C., Friege, C., Gensler, S., Lobschat, L., Rangaswamy, A., Skiera, B. (2010). The impact of new media on customer relationships.Journal of service research,13(3), 311-330. Hutter, K., Hautz, J., Dennhardt, S., Fller, J. (2013). The impact of user interactions in social media on brand awareness and purchase intention: the case of MINI on Facebook.Journal of Product Brand Management,22(5/6), 342-351. Kaplan, A. M., Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media.Business horizons,53(1), 59-68. Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media.Business horizons,54(3), 241-251. Laroche, M., Habibi, M. R., Richard, M. O. (2013). To be or not to be in social media: How brand loyalty is affected by social media?.International Journal of Information Management,33(1), 76-82. Malthouse, E. C., Haenlein, M., Skiera, B., Wege, E., Zhang, M. (2013). Managing customer relationships in the social media era: introducing the social CRM house.Journal of Interactive Marketing,27(4), 270-280. Merchant, R. M., Elmer, S., Lurie, N. (2011). Integrating social media into emergency-preparedness efforts.New England Journal of Medicine,365(4), 289-291. Messing, S., Westwood, S. J. (2014). Selective exposure in the age of social media: Endorsements trump partisan source affiliation when selecting news online.Communication Research,41(8), 1042-1063. Michaelidou, N., Siamagka, N. T., Christodoulides, G. (2011). Usage, barriers and measurement of social media marketing: An exploratory investigation of small and medium B2B brands.Industrial marketing management,40(7), 1153-1159. O'Brien, C. (2011). The emergence of the social media empowered consumer.Irish marketing review,21(1/2), 32. Sashi, C. M. (2012). Customer engagement, buyer-seller relationships, and social media.Management decision,50(2), 253-272. Smith, B. G. (2010). Socially distributing public relations: Twitter, Haiti, and interactivity in social media.Public Relations Review,36(4), 329-335. Whiting, A., Williams, D. (2013). Why people use social media: a uses and gratifications approach.Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal,16(4), 362-369. Xiang, Z., Gretzel, U. (2010). Role of social media in online travel information search.Tourism management,31(2), 179-188.

Thursday, November 28, 2019

Pit Bulls free essay sample

American societies famous bully breeds is too often stereotyped as malicious animals, but that stereotype is false due to evidence that pit bulls can be just as loving as the iconic golden retriever. According to the American Temperament Test, which is a test that focuses on and measures different aspects of temperament such as stability, shyness, aggressiveness, friendliness and self-preservation in the face of a threat shows that Pit Bulls have a temperament of 86.8%, (American Temperament Test Society) a much higher percentage than other breeds which justifies that these animals can withstand a higher tolerance of aggressiveness. If this is the case, why are Pit Bulls one of the most discriminated dog breeds in today’s society? Due to irresponsible owners, Pit Bulls have been labeled cruel and violent animals, leading people to be frightened for themselves, their children, and their pets. By experience and owning a pit bull for oneself, people would begin to understand something entirely different. We will write a custom essay sample on Pit Bulls or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Pit Bulls are a misunderstood breed; they are one of the most loving and loyal breeds that deserves a fair chance just like any other dog would, but because of irresponsible owners, and their negligence toward teaching their pit bulls the right mannerisms this may never happen. The reputation of the Pit Bull has taken a dramatic downfall in the past few decades due to negative publicity. Originally, Pit Bulls were considered to be   Ã¢â‚¬Å"American darlings†; during WWI they were claimed to be the sweetest and most loving dogs a person could own, but in the 1980’s the view of the â€Å"American darlings† changed due to an illegal â€Å"sport†, dogfighting. Although dogfighting is illegal in all fifty states, inhumane persons who participate in the sport choose pit bulls because of their strong physique and loyal personality, which contribute to the stereotype of all pit bulls being violent due to the public only viewing them as fighters. A famous example of this is the widely known scandal around NFL player Michael Vick, who was convicted of running Pit bull fighting kennels in Smithfield, VA. The outcome of this case brought on more discrimination toward Pit bulls in general. Although Pit Bulls were viewed badly, people still used them as the preferred guard dog not only for the bad as in drug houses and gang members, but also as one would get any dog, to use them as protection for their property. In 1987 an incident regarding a Pit Bull and a two-year-old sent red flags up for this prestigious breed. A pit bull that was under the care of an irresponsible owner had the dog guarding an illegal marijuana crop, in California, when a two-year-old boy who was unsupervised was wandering around and fell victim to the pit bull. This attack was immediately publicized because of the pit bull being involved as the main concern, which made the reputation of Pit Bulls sink even lower. People began to think that Pit Bulls were heartless killers, due to the mis-training of their owners. The public was misinformed; they did not know that the child was wandering around unsupervised in an enclosed area. This situation would create a threat to any guard dog, not just a Pit Bull, and the outcome would have been the same. Because of that horrible mistake, the Pit Bull was killed. In a situation like this, it is in no way the Pit Bull’s fault; he was merely doing his job. Rather, it is the owner’s fault for not clearly training him and the parent’s fault for being careless with their child. This was brought to the courts attention and soon thoughts of a ban against Pit bulls were raised. The public was outraged by this attack and proposed a ban on Pit bulls. This ban was granted throughout 39 or more cities and states without the consent of any animal professionals or the owners of this breed. These bans lead to the death of many innocent Pit Bulls in many areas. Many Cities reportedly spent over two hundred and fifty thousand dollars in rounding up and killing these animals. Devastated owners had their animals confiscated and killed without warning. In Tijeras, New Mexico, the ban was so strictly enforced that animal control officers were allowed to kill any Pit Bull seen on sight without compensation to the owner. Due to their misunderstood reputation, people made rash decisions that affected the lives of many loving Pit Bulls that never stood a chance. They have even become a â€Å"liability† due to their â€Å"overly violent† personalities and because of this have been banned from many areas in the United States. One thing that frightens people the most is a Pit Bulls jaw. While they do have one of the strongest jaws, it is not the strongest. Dr. I. Lerh Brisbin, of the University of Georgia, states, â€Å"The few studies, which have been conducted of the structure of the skulls, mandibles and teeth of Pit Bulls show, that, in proportion to their size, their jaw structure and thus its inferred functional morphology, is no different than that of any [other] breed of dog. There is absolutely not evidence for the existence of any kind of locking mechanism unique to the structure of the jaw and/or teeth of the American Pit Bull Terrier. † There is no evidence to prove that Pit Bulls have unique jaws or any lethal â€Å"lockjaw†. The â€Å"lockjaw† method is learned through training, it is not a special killing tool, and once again the owner creates this issue for the breed. Pit Bulls are not the only kind of dog to be able to do this; most breeds can. The difference is people are already scared of Pit Bulls, so they continue to publicize it much more than the other breeds. Christina Berry, writer for The Lazy Pit Bull states, â€Å"Pit Bulls are the most discriminated dog in the US. This is in part because there are so many myths surrounding them, which makes some people believe theyre not suitable for adoption. This is not true. A rescued Pit Bull can make a wonderful companion. † Once people realize this, then Pit Bull adoption rates will rise and they can be put into good homes. These animals need someone that will take care of them and love them. That is all that is required for a happy dog and no accidents will be encountered. If these animals were provided the rights training and proper care than there would not be any worry about owning one of these animals. There are many precautions that have to be taken when owning these animals. Such as; proper housing and fencing, this contributes to a safe environment where these animals can roam and live without the disturbance of others. Also a calm and secluded area where no one can be around or taunt the animal in its own territory. When these animals are out in the public they should be constantly under supervision, this will allow you to know what the animal is doing at all time and give the proper amount of time to react if the Pit Bull feels threatened. Throughout the awful times many people continue to stand by Pit Bulls, these people are the ones that have experienced owning this loving creature and understand that the bad reputation Pit Bulls have is merely a misconception. I believe that Pit Bulls are the greatest breed a family could have. I have had fourteen Pit Bulls and each one was very special to me. They are very playful, confident, strong, humorous, loving, but most of all loyal. They will do anything for their owners. They are just like any other dog, but unfortunately they are not seen the same. Not one of my Pit Bulls ever harmed or attacked any other animal or human. They continuously proved themselves to being the sweetest animals that many have had the great fortune to meet. What normal, other dogs can do, like jump on somebody or behave like a dog, a Pit Bull can do that and be deemed dangerous, (Kingsbury) Unless people start taking the time to get to know the extraordinary breed that Pit Bulls are, they will never be able to understand their true personality or help them. Pit Bulls need to stop being looked at as monsters and killing machines, they are just like any other dog. They are loving, trusting, loyal, and fun. Pit Bulls are a wonderful versatile breed and are used for many different purposes; Fighting is not the only thing they excel at. They are a breed always focused and determined to please its owner, thus if we start using them for the right purposes these dogs make wonderful therapy, guide, rescue, service, weight pulling, but most of all companion dogs. â€Å"Pit Bulls love people. Although this breed frequently gets a bad rap in the media, if you have ever met a Pit Bull that was raised by a loving, conscientious family then you will understand how much they like to be with people.   All they need is the right kind of guidance, and owner. Pit Bulls are just like any other pet that one takes into their home, these dogs are wrongly named and deceived for the acts they are trained by their owners to do. JRL Solutions states, â€Å"It is in actuality the humans who continue to make a series of hasty or ignorant mistakes that are helping to perpetuate the bad reputation this breed has gained over the last decade. † If a law should pass against these dogs, it should be the law to mandate the right methods of training. To punish these dogs and classify them as malicious or dangerous is a hypocritical judgment as any dog, small, medium, or large could be classified into these categories. After much research and experience as I have had my fair share in taking responsibility and care of this precious breed, it is safe to say that society should rethink their opinions and misconceptions of these dogs. It is proven that they were the â€Å"American darlings† of our time, they have the tolerance to withstand aggressiveness, and they are one of the most loyal companions any man could ask for.